Bash echo multiple strings

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Bash echo multiple strings

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. As this question stand specifically for Bashmy first part of the answer would present different ways of doing this properly:. Because I am frugal, I will only use two variables foo and a and then re-use the same in the whole answer.

Note that between parentheses, there is a space separated array. If you want to store a string containing spaces in your array, you have to enclose them:.

To prevent bash to try to develop! The printf builtin command gives a powerful way of drawing string format. As this is a Bash builtinthere is a option for sending formatted string to a variable instead of printing on stdout :. There are seven strings in this array. So we could build a formatted string containing exactly seven positional arguments:.

Or we could use one argument format string which will be repeated as many argument submitted Under bash, when you access a variable name without specifying index, you always address first element only! If you want to use more sophisticated constructions you have to use a fork new child process that make the job and return the result via stdout :.

Or if you have spaces or other special characters in your strings. The table below explains the different contexts where we can combine the values of a and b to create a new variable, c. Any script using this operator on older Bash versions will fail with a "command not found" error if you are lucky, or a "syntax error near unexpected token".

For those who cares about backward compatibility, stick with the older standard Bash concatenation methods, like those mentioned in the chosen answer:. If what you are trying to do is to split a string into several lines, you can use a backslash:. Will output "daniel"sanand not danielsanas you might have wanted. In this case you should do instead:. There are voiced concerns about performance, but no data is offered. Let me suggest a simple test.

The errors indicate that my Bash got up to You could change the code from doubling the data to appending a constant to get a more granular graph and failure point. But I think this should give you enough information to decide whether you care.

bash echo multiple strings

Your mileage may vary. I wanted to build a string from a list.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. My goal is create a script using echo commands then run it later. The immediate problem is you have is with quoting: by using double quotes " Use single quotes instead - strings inside single quotes are not expanded or interpreted in any way by the shell. If you want selective expansion inside a string - i. If you quote the here-doc delimiter EOF in the code belowvariable references are also not expanded.

Note, however, that this only works with actual tab characters, not leading spaces. Employing this technique combined with the afterthoughts regarding the script's content below, we get again, note that actual tab chars. Finally, note that in bash even normal single- or double-quoted strings can span multiple linesbut you won't get the benefits of tab-stripping or line-block scoping, as everything inside the quotes becomes part of the string.

Thus, note how in the following! Inside single quotes special characters are not special any more, they are just normal characters.

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Learn more. Bash: Echoing a echo command with a variable in bash Ask Question. Asked 6 years, 6 months ago. Active 1 month ago.

Viewed k times. Ok, here is one I am struggling with as we speak. Echoing a echo command with a variable. Promise Preston 4, 2 2 gold badges 20 20 silver badges 43 43 bronze badges.

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David David 1 1 gold badge 5 5 silver badges 12 12 bronze badges. Consider using a "heredoc". For this purpose, much easier. Less quoting to do. Active Oldest Votes. Mihai Mihai 1, 1 1 gold badge 10 10 silver badges 16 16 bronze badges.

Peter K. GoinOff GoinOff 1, 1 1 gold badge 15 15 silver badges 31 31 bronze badges.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Inspired by the insightful answers on this page, I created a mixed approach, which I consider the simplest and more flexible one. What do you think? First, I define the usage in a variable, which allows me to reuse it in different contexts. Sample but not sure whether a good one or not.

Bash first

The fun thing is that -e option is not documented in MacOS's man page while still usable. It is documented in the man page of Linux. Since I recommended printf in a comment, I should probably give some examples of its usage although for printing a usage message, I'd be more likely to use Dennis' or Chris' answers.

Here are two different approaches to using it for a usage message:. Note that unlike echoyou must include the final newline explicitly. If you wanted to include the bugreport and homepage addresses, they can be added quite naturally:. Second, you could just use the format string to make it print each additional argument on a separate line:.

For example this:. If you use the solution from jorge and find that everything is on the same line, make sure you enclose the variable in quotes:. Learn more. How to output a multiline string in Bash? Ask Question. Asked 8 years, 4 months ago. Active 6 months ago. Viewed k times. MarkReed The usage message is output by typing --help which should go to standard out.

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For others who come along, more info about "here documents" is available: tldp. Check the printf -based solution from Gordon Davidson. Despite being in the shadow of the echo or cat based approaches, it seems to be much less of a kludge. Related: stackoverflow. Active Oldest Votes. Here documents are often used for this purpose. Paused until further notice. Yup - but cat isn't a built-in.

MarkReed: That's true, but it's always available except possibly under unusual circumstances. Jun 10 '12 at Chris Mohr Chris Mohr 2, 1 1 gold badge 10 10 silver badges 9 9 bronze badges.

Jorge Jorge 8 8 silver badges 6 6 bronze badges. Sample but not sure whether a good one or not The fun thing is that -e option is not documented in MacOS's man page while still usable. To see the documentation for the built-in, type help echo.

bash echo multiple strings

MarkReed: I'll try later, but thanks for the info. I will just leave my answer here, since there are quite a lot of good discussion going on.Bash can be used to perform some basic string manipulation. It is best to put these to use when the logic does not get overly complicated. In this post we will look at some useful and commmonly used string manipulation technques that should come in handy in our every day scripting tasks.

Concatinate two strings variables x and y. Delimit string with character and convert them into separate variables. Note that, with the above example one can get the first 2 characters from string by setting the start and end positions as 0 to 2, respectively. For example, to get the last two characters, it can be done by the following method that uses negative numbers for positional arguement.

In the below two examples, the first one removes only the first occurence of the substring, but the second examples removes all occurences of a substring. Bash can be used to manipulate strings when the requirements are simple. However when things get complicated, such as to work on complex patterns and logic, bash does not fair well.

Log in to leave a comment. Close Just let me in! Saturday, October 10, Concatinate strings Delimit string with character Delimit string with character and convert it into an array Get Length of string Get substring from a specific position Get substring from a given start position to a given end position Replace one substring with another, in a string Delete substring from a string Remove all occurences of a substring in a string Remove substring only if its a prefix to string Remove substring only if its a suffix to string Check if substring exists in string Convert string to uppercase Convert string to lowercase Convert the first character to upperase Convert the first character to lowercase Convert only certain characters to uppercase Convert only certain characters to lowercase String manipulation with Bash Concatinate strings Concatinate two strings variables x and y.

Daemonize a process with python. How to: get current and parent process IDs in python. Contact us: admin unixutils.

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String Manipulation in Bash with examples September 8, All Rights Reserved.Joinsubscribers and get a daily digest of news, geek trivia, and our feature articles. By submitting your email, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The echo command is perfect for writing formatted text to the terminal window. It can include shell variables, filenames, and directories. You can also redirect echo to create text files and log files.

Follow this simple guide to find out how. Zeus was fond of leaving Mount Olympus to consort with beautiful nymphs. On one trip, he told a mountain nymph called Echo to waylay his wifeHera, if she followed him.

Hera did come looking for Zeus, and Echo did all she could to keep Hera in conversation. Finally, Hera lost her temper and cursed poor Echo so that she only repeat the last words that someone else had said. It repeats what it has been told to repeat. Most Linux systems provide two versions of echo. The type command tells us whether the command we pass to it as its argument is a shell builtin, a binary executable, an alias, or a function.

It reports to us that echo is a shell builtin. As soon as it has found an answer, type stops looking for further matches.

bash echo multiple strings

But it does tell us which one it finds first. The whereis command looks for the binary executable, source code, and man page for the command we pass to it as its command-line parameter.

To use that version of echo you would need to explicitly call it by providing the path to the executable on the command line:. To write a simple string of text to the terminal window, type echo and the string you want it to display:.

The text is repeated for us. Look at this example:. What happened there? It interpreted that single quote as the start of a quoted section of text. It expected that further input to include the missing single quote it was waiting for. To include a single quote in a string, the simplest solution is to wrap the whole string within double quote marks:. Wrapping your text in double quote marks is good general advice. This makes reading—and debugging—scripts much easier. What if you want to include a double quote character in your string of text?

We can use variables with echo to produce output that is more dynamic and has values inserted into it for us by the shell. We can define a simple variable with this command:. There is a caveat. To have the variable value displayed, and not the name of the variable, use double quote marks.

We can use a command with echo and incorporate its output into the string that is written to the terminal window. One tip is to use the command on its own before you start using it with echo. That way, if there is something wrong with the syntax of your command, you identify it and correct it before you include it in the echo command.The most simple way to join two or more strings together is to place the strings one after another.

The string variable can be added in any position of the string data. Here, a string variable is initialized and printed by adding the variable in the middle of the other string. Each value of the list will be combined with each other serially with a space in each iteration of the loop. The literal string variable can be used to combine with other string data.

Unix \u0026 Linux: How do I echo a string with multiple spaces in bash \

Any particular character can be added inside to combine two or more strings data. This type of task is required when you need to add a separator among the string data. Each string value can be separated easily later if they are combined by a specific character. Here, three string data are taken as input at the beginning of the script. View the file, customers. String concatenation requires in the programming language to generate meaningful output. The output of the script needs to be formatted by combining data properly.

All possible ways of combing strings in bash are tried to explain in this tutorial. Hope, the users will be benefited after practicing this tutorial and able to combine strings properly in the bash script.

I am a trainer of web programming courses. I like to write article or tutorial on various IT topics. The way of joining two or more strings together is called string concatenation. It is a common requirement of any programming language.

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A specific character or built-in function is used to do the concatenation operation in the standard programming language. But, there is no built-in function in bash like other languages to combine string data or variables. The string data can be combined easily in bash by placing one after another or by using shorthand operator. How string concatenation can be done in bash is shown in this tutorial by using several examples.

Example String variables one after another The most simple way to join two or more strings together is to place the strings one after another. Fahmida Yesmin I am a trainer of web programming courses. View all posts.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

It only takes a minute to sign up. How can I print the full string untouched? Put your variable inside double quote to prevent field splittingwhich ate your spaces:. As suggested in this answer quoting the variable is enough. For reference read Why is printf better than echo?

I know your question is tagged bash but anyway, for maximum portability and reliability, I would use:. Sign up to join this community.

The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Asked 4 years, 6 months ago. Active 3 years, 5 months ago. Viewed k times. Patrick Sanan 3 3 bronze badges. Put the variable inside double quotes. This is one of the main reasons we constantly harp "quote your variables". Active Oldest Votes. While strictly true, the cause here is totally unrelated to the difference between printf and echo. While printf is certainly more portable and has some upsides, its major downside is that it is ugly and unreadable, and way more difficult to understand.

This doesn't work for me. In output I get the dot - it's not a concatenation operator in this case. The Overflow Blog. Podcast Ben answers his first question on Stack Overflow.

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